Tapping into Power of Excel Functions

Excel has many built-in formulas that can be very basic or extremely complex called as worksheet functions.
A formula is an expression that includes specific values and cell addresses which returns a particular result in the cell or a position specified in the syntax. These functions are useful because they are swift and straightforward for performing a spreadsheet task.

Below you can find the important functions of seven main categories:

Text Functions


The CHAR function display characters based on the underlying ANSI numeric codes. I.e. in Window, = CHAR(33) in Excel returns “!” (exclamation mark).


The Excel LOWER function converts all letters in the text to lowercase. For example, “LOWer” returns “lower”.


The Excel EXACT function display (True or False) after matching two text strings if they are exactly same. Also identifies case-sensitive differences between two text.


The Excel REPT function repeat a text for a specified number of times. For example, =REPT(“M”,3) returns “MMM”.


The Excel LEN function counts a number of characters of a given text string excluding number formatting. For example, LEN(“Excel”) returns “5”.


The REPLACE function substitute part of a text string with a new text string. I.e., =REPLACE(“Michael Jackson”,9,6,”Jorda”) returns “Michael Jordan”.


The MID function extracts a specified number of characters from the middle of a given text string. For example, =MID(“number”,1,3) returns “num”.


The SEARCH function finds the position of a specified character or sub-string within a text string. I.e., =SEARCH(“ring”,”String”,1) return “3”, “ring” begins at the third character of “String”.


The CLEAN function delete the non-printable characters from 1 to 31 of the ANSI character set, the “garbage” characters that often appear after importing texts.


The CONCATENATE function display text by merging multiple text strings. I.e., combine separate texts, =CONCATENATE(“Indian “, “Ocean”) returns “Indian Ocean”.


The FIND function displays the numerical position of the character in a string. I.e. to find the 2nd occurrence of 8, =FIND(8,128128,4) returns 6.


The DOLLAR function display a number with a dollar currency. I.e. =DOLLAR(500) returns $500 as a currency but in a text format.


The TEXTJOIN function allows concatenating (join) the text from multiple ranges with a delimiter between each text value. E.g., =TEXTJOIN(” ,”,TRUE,”Blue”,”Green”,”White”,”Black”) return ” Blue ,Green ,White ,Black”.


The VALUE function converts valid numbers with various number formatting (number, date, $ etc.) into a code number. E.g. “=VALUE(“31-12-2017”)” returns “43100”.


The CODE function displays a unique number of each valid character based on the underlying set standard of ANSI. I.e, =CODE(B8) returns ! (exclamation mark).


The TRIM function removes excess spaces from a text string except for one space between each word. E.g. =TRIM(“Hello World”) [3 spaces] return “Hello World”.


The Excel BAHTTEXT function converts a number to Thai currency with a suffix of “Baht”. I.e., to translate $5.50 in cell B7 =BAHTTEXT(B7) returns “ห้าบาทห้าสิบสตางค์”.


The TEXT function allows converting a value to a specific format based on the given format codes. E.g. =TEXT(31-12-2018,”MM/DD/YYYY”) return ” 12/31/2018″.


The FIXED function displays a number in a text format after rounding the specified number of decimal places with or without commas.


The PROPER function capitalizes the first letter of each word in a given alphabetical text. I.e., =PROPER(“michael jackson”) returns “Michael Jackson”.


The Excel RIGHT function extract rightmost characters based on the specified number. I.e., =RIGHT(“String”,4) returns “ring”.


The LEFT function display number of characters specified in the argument of text starting from the left. I.e., LEFT(“Excel LEFT function”,5) returns “Excel”.


The Excel UPPER function converts all letters in the text to uppercase. E.g., “=UPPER(“Hello World”)” returns ” HELLO WORLD”.


The SUBSTITUTE function replace the specific text in a text string that occurs in a specific location. i.e, =SUBSTITUTE(“Butter”,”t”,”l”,2) return “Butler”.


The CONCAT function display text by combining multiple ranges, array and/or strings. I.e., =CONCAT(“Mike “, “Tyson”) returns “Mike Tyson”, note space after “Mike ”.

Lookup Functions


The ADDRESS function returns cell address from given row and column numbers of a worksheet. For example, if you pass ADDRESS(5,6) the function returns $F$5.


The HYPERLINK function creates a shortcut or clickable link of a given location with a “friendly name”. User Click that initiates a call for action.


The FORMULATEXT function displays the syntax of a reference cell as a string, cell B5 contains =5+2 return 7, = FORMULATEXT(B5) returns a text value “=5+2”.


The OFFSET function returns one or multiple data points of a data set by giving a reference point with a specified number of rows and columns to offset.


The HLOOKUP function extract data in a horizontal pattern which means heading in 1st row and value begins from 2nd row, and retrieve data from left to right.


The VLOOKUP function extract data in a vertical pattern which means heading in 1st column and value begins from the 2nd column and retrieve data from left to right.


The COLUMNS function returns a count of all columns of a cell range or array formula, =COLUMNS(E10:F100) returns 2 (two columns E & F).


The MATCH function finds row or column of a given value containing in a data set, cell B3 in a list contains ‘Feb’ =MATCH(B3,B1:B10,0) returns 2 (3rd row).


The TRANSPOSE function “switch data direction” or the range of data from vertical format (row) to horizontal format (column), or vice versa.


The ROWS function returns the number of rows of a cell range or array formula, =ROWS(E10:F100) returns 91 (91 rows in the cell range i.e. 10 to 100).


The INDEX function returns a cell value from one or multiple data range at a given row‐and‐column intersection and gets a specific value from a data set.


The INDIRECT function creates a cell reference from a given text string same as the name of a worksheet and extracts value from a specific cell.


The CHOOSE function returns specific information from a list of data points, =CHOOSE(4,”Railways”,”Roads”,”Airways”,”Waterways”) returns Waterways.


The ROW function returns the row number of a reference cell. For example, =ROW(E9:E10) returns 9 (9th from top to bottom, only the first cell).


The LOOKUP function search in single row or column for a given value and return value from the same position or, next row or column.


The COLUMN function returns the column number of a first reference cell. For example, =COLUMN(E10:F10) returns 5 (5th column, a sequence of E in alphabets).


The AREAS function returns a number of areas or region. I.e., =AREAS((B2:C4,D8:F9)) returns 2 (number of areas), include extra sets of parentheses.

Information Functions


The ISERR function checks if a specified cell has error value ‘except #N/A’ and returns “TRUE” only if a cell has an error. For example: “=ISERR(#DIV/0!)” return TRUE.


The ISFORMULA function check if a specified cell is containing a formula and returns “TRUE” if it contains, I.e., cell C6 =2+2, “=ISFORMULA(C6)” returns TRUE.


The ISLOGICAL function check if a specified cell has Boolean value and returns “TRUE” when a cell has a Boolean data type, and “FALSE” if it does not.


The Excel ISNA function checks if a specified cell has #N/A error and returns “TRUE” when a cell has a #N/A error, and “FALSE” it does not.


The ISREF function checks if a cell has a correct reference, returns “TRUE” when a cell has a valid reference, and “FALSE” for reference error or not linked.


The Excel TYPE function returns data type of reference cell or value of an argument. Example, =TYPE(“ABC”) return data type 2 (Text data format).


The ISNUMBER function checks if a specified cell has a numeric value and returns “TRUE” if a cell has a numeric value, and “FALSE” when a cell does not.


The SHEETS function finds the total number of sheets in a workbook. In the case of no argument the function returns total count of active workbook.


The N function returns a code number by converting specific reference based on a set of rule. I.e., =N(B6) will return 43093, B6 refers to ’24-12-2017′.


The ISEVEN function checks if a cell has even numeric value and returns “TRUE” for even numeric value, & “FALSE” for an odd number.


The SHEET function returns a sequence number of an Excel worksheet in a workbook of a given reference, worksheet, range name or table name.


The ISNONTEXT function checks if a specified cell has non-text value and returns “TRUE” when a cell has a non-text, and “FALSE” it contains a text value.


The Excel ERROR.TYPE function returns an integer code of the corresponding error type or returns the #N/A if no error exists.


The NA function returns with #N/A error. A #N/A error means “no value is available”, used to highlight empty cells or any missing information of data set.


The ISBLANK function checks if a cell is blank and returns “TRUE” when it is, I.e., “=ISBLANK(“Text”)” return FALSE as the cell contains some value “Text”.


The CELL function returns with information of a cell about the formatting, location, or contents. The type of information is based on the info_type parameter.


The INFO function get specifications about the current operating environment, include the operating system, Excel version, num. of active worksheets.. so on.


The Excel ISERROR function check if a specified cell has error value and returns “TRUE” when a cell has an error, and “FALSE” it does not.


The ISODD function checks if a specified cell has an odd numeric value and returns “TRUE” when a cell has an odd numeric value and “FALSE” for an even number.


The Excel ISTEXT function check if a specified cell has a value in text format and returns “TRUE” when a cell contains a text value, and “FALSE” if not.

Logical Functions


The FALSE function returns the logical value FALSE. The formula is useful to enter the FALSE directly into the cell or added as part of criteria.


The SWITCH function lookup a value in a list of multiple data points and return the corresponding first match otherwise default value or #N/A return.


The XOR function returns TRUE when only one of the logic or condition is true. It returns TRUE if only one is right, not ‘at least one’ like OR function.


The NOT function reverse a boolean result (TRUE or FALSE) of logical criteria in the argument. For example, =NOT(5=5) return FALSE (opposite the result).


The IFNA function evaluate given criterion (value) in case the return value is a #N/A error then it substitutes with a different text string (value_if_na).


The TRUE function returns the logical value ‘TRUE’. The formula is useful to enter the TRUE directly into the cell or added as part of criteria in a formula.


The AND function is a logical operator that join two or more criteria i.e., if A2 is 75, =AND(A2>1,A2<50), return “FALSE” as none of the condition matches.


The IF function is a handy logical operator that return value based on a valid test of criteria, if it matches (TRUE) and another value if it does not.


Rational Check multiple criteria and return the first match. Description The Excel IFS function evaluate multiple criteria at once and return the first TRUE criteria


The OR function is a logical operator that returns TRUE if the condition matches i.e. =OR(A1=10, A1=100) check cell A1 contains either 10 or 100.


The IFERROR function evaluates a criterion in case of an error then it substitutes with a different text string. I.e.,=IFERROR(2/0,”Error”) return “Error”.

Date & Time Functions


The ISOWEEKNUM function return ISO week number considering a week begins on Monday. Example; date (09-03-2017), use = ISOWEEKNUM(date) that returns 10.


The YEARFRAC function finds the fraction of years between two dates, like 01-01-2017 and 30-09-2017, use =YEARFRAC(startdate,enddate,2), that returns ‘0.755’.


The NETWORKDAYS.INTL counts days between two dates, excl. custom Weekend days. I.e.; workdays between 01-11-2018 (B6) and 31-12-2018 (C6) excl. Friday and Saturday, use =NETWORKDAYS.INTL(B6,C6,7) that returns 43.


The NETWORKDAYS function returns a number of working days between two dates, 01-11-2018 (B6) and 31-12-2018 (C6), use =NETWORKDAYS(B6,C6) that returns ‘43’.


The NOW function returns the serial number of the current date and time. Example; to show the current date and time, use NOW(), empty parenthesis.


The DATEVALUE function translates a date into a valid date serial number. I.e; if date is in text format, use =DATEVALUE(“10-6-17”) that returns 42896.


The EDATE function returns a future or past month from a given date. I.e., =EDATE(“31-03-2016”,-1) returns a leap date 29-02-2016 as 2016 is a leap year.


The WEEKDAY function returns an integer between 1 and 7 the corresponds specific day of a week. Example; (07-04-2018: Cell-B6), use =WEEKDAY(B6,2) returns ‘6’.


The DAY function returns an integer value that represents the day element of a date. I.e.; to extract day component, use =DAY(“08-08-2017”) that returns ‘8’.


The SECOND function returns the second component (a number from 0 to 59). Example, 6:48:15 PM, the SECOND function will return ‘15’.


The DAYS function returns the difference between two dates. To find days duration between two dates, use DAYS(“01/08/2018″,”01/05/2017”) that returns ‘457’.


The WEEKNUM function finds the week number of date and week start day, i.e., week starting from Monday (05-06-2018-C7), use =WEEKNUM(B7,2) that returns ‘23’.


The Excel TODAY function returns the current date in the selected cell. Example; to show the current date in Excel automatically, use TODAY(), empty parenthesis.


WORKDAY function returns a date based on a given number of working days before and after starting date, to find two days after a date excl. weekends,=WORKDAY(date,2) returns 2.


The Excel EOMONTH function gives the last date on the basis of the past or future month number. For Example; if start_date is 12-10-2019 and month is 8, use formula =EOMONTH (B3,C3) that returns (30-06-2020).


The TIME function returns the time value by merging the three-time components. Example, use =TIME(9,15,35), that may returns “09:15:35”.


The DATE function returns a date value using year, month and date, sequentially. I.e.; to merge all 3 date component, =DATE(2012,12,4) returns “04-12-2012”.


The YEAR function extracts the Year component of a given date. Example; to get or find Year from a date (11/08/2017- cell B5), use =YEAR(B5), returns ‘2017’.


The TIMEVALUE function returns the time serial number (in decimal). I.e., =TIMEVALUE(“12:45:30 PM”) as 0.53125 (proportion of total time value of a day).


The Excel HOUR function returns the hour component of a timestamp between 0 (12:00 A.M.) and 23 (11:59 P.M.), use =HOUR(0.3) that returns ‘7’ (0.3*24).


The DATEDIF is an unknown compatibility function that can be used to calculate the difference between two dates. To find years diff.,=DATEDIF(start_date, end_date,”y”).


The MONTH function extracts an integer between 1 and 12. I.e., to get month component of a date (8/15/2017) in cell B5, use =MONTH(B5) that returns ‘8’.


The Excel DAYS360 function result assumes that a Year is of 360 days, 30 days per month.
use =DAYS360(“01/05/2017”, “01/08/2018”) that returns ‘450’.


WORKDAYS.INTL returns a working day before and after a date, excl. custom Weekend days i.e. to find a working day 2 days after a date (01-11-2018-B7) excluding Friday and Saturday, =WORKDAY.INTL(B7,2,7), returns ‘05-11-2018’.


The MINUTE function returns the minute component of a time value. For example, with a time of 6:48 PM or text, =MINUTE(time) will return ’48’.

Statistics Functions


The MIN function returns the smallest numerical with the lowest value as per given reference of cell range.


The AVERAGEIFS function returns an average number based on one or multiple given criteria, sum adjacent cells that meet given conditions.


The Excel RANK function returns a position of the given number on the basis of order increasing (1) or decreasing (0) in the given array.


The Excel SMALL function returns the 2nd smallest or Nth numeric value in the given list or column by giving the position argument.


The AVERAGE function returns an average of numbers positioned in one or multiple ranges, =AVERAGE(5,15,30) add numbers and divide by 3, and returns 16.67.


The Excel LARGE function returns the 2nd highest or Nth numeric value in the given list or column by giving position argument.


The Excel TRIMMEAN function returns an average (arithmetic mean) after excluding a given percentage i.e. remove from the high and low numbers in a given data set.
= TRIMMEAN(array, percent)


The COUNTIF function returns a count of number based on given criteria like =COUNTIF(A1:A5,”>5″) that count numbers in the list >5 and returns 3.


The AVERAGEIF function returns an average figure based on given criteria like =AVERAGEIF({6;8;10;3;5},”>5″) average numbers that are more than 5 and return 8.


The FREQUENCY function returns the occurrences of a value in a given bin. I.e., if A1:A300 contains numbers between 1-100, it returns count within 11 to 20 bins.


The COUNTA function count of numbers and text within the reference list of arguments ignoring blank cells, =COUNTA(A1:A10) will return 7 (disregard blank).


The COUNT function count of numbers within the reference list of arguments ignoring text & blank cells, =COUNT(A1:A10) will return 5 (only numeric).


The COUNTBLANK function returns the count of blank cells only ignoring number and text cells Like,=COUNTBLANK(A1:A10) will return 3 (ignoring value).


The COUNTIFS function returns a count of numbers based on one or multiple given criterion based on dates, numbers, and text.


The MAX function returns the highest value as per cell range, if A1:A5 contains a list of numbers (2,8,10,5,6), the formula can be =MAX(A1:A5), returns 10.

Math Functions


The ROUND function returns a number after rounding a supplied number to a specific number of digits like =ROUND(19.62159344,3) returns 19.621 (3 decimals).


The Excel CONVERT function gives a number after changing one measurement to others. For Example, use =CONVERT(40,”C”, “F”) returns 104. i.e. it changes Celsius to Fahrenheit.


The Excel MOD function returns a value (remainder) after dividing the number with the divisor.
For example, suppose that you have a number in a column and the user wants to find the remainder, the formula can be =MOD(23,10) the Excel numbers divides and returns 3.


The SUM function returns a number after adding multiple numeric arguments together =SUM(5,10,15) the Excel add numbers together and returns 30.


The SUMIF function returns a sum of number based on given criteria, like =SUMIF({2;8;10;3;5},”>5″) add numbers that are only more than 5 and returns 18.


The RAND function generates a number in the decimals format between 0 to 1, =RAND()*10+10 always returns a decimal number falling between 10 and 20.


The RANDBETWEEN function generates a set of random integers between two numbers, =RANDBETWEEN(10,50) returns always a random integer between 10 and 50.


The SUMPRODUCT function returns a sum of the product of numbers together distributed in multiplies ranges or arrays, an easier way to add multiple integers.


The SUMIFS function returns an addition of numerical as per multiple criteria based on the match of dates, numbers, and text against the reference.


The SUBTOTAL is a versatile function that summarizes a list or dataset using 11 different operations by determining the actual function based on the user input.